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In the article I argue that, in addition to described by economic historians and by theorists of economics obvious and direct relation between technology and the market, there is another important manifestation of it. The impact that development of science and technology may have on the economy, which I have tried to examine, is indirect and difficult to grasp. According to me, if the development of technology and science ever leads to adverse and relatively long-term changes in the economic system, it has nothing to do with application of some new technical solutions. The underlying cause of these changes may be the way science changes our perception of the world worldview, practice of science, political thought and intellectual climate of an era.