The main aim of this work is the analysis of the Old Serbian oral tradition from the end of the 14th century until the 16th century. It focuses mainly on the reconstruction of the original social, cultural,and historical context as well as the communicative situation in that period, during which the main core of oral accounts was created. That core was connected with the personages and events of the Serbianhistory from the second half of the 14th century until the 15th century (the Battle of Kosovo, Prince Marko, the Serbian despots etc.). Owing to its universal and historical levels, that core became the point ofreference for oral songs during the Ottoman period. Development of the Old Serbian oral epic tradition was stimulated in that period mainly by the Ottoman conquests, the chivalric code and the chivalricromance.