Subject and Keywords:
German governmental administration is located within the framework of both the federation’s structure and lands – while German local government is an element of lands’ administration only. Such dual public administration has been influenced by German citizens in traditional legal forms as a result of direct and indirect democracy. Now, a new and dynamic phenomenon of emerging forms of cooperative democracy can be identified within local government. These forms include: participation of citizens in planning procedures, civil fora, mediation proceedings, and framing civic budgets. All these forms are substantial elements of civil municipality.