The main goal of this article is to present early attempts to codify the Japanese civil law during 1868-1890 in scope of historical and political background. During the period 1639-1868, under the regime of insulating acts, Japan remained a country completely isolated from the global society. The political system was based on the hierarchical model of ruling feudal principalities by the shogunate. The nineteenth century, which brought not only an industrial revolution, the rise of modern colonial empires, but also the Imperial Restoration, put the Japanese elites under the pressure of complex reform of the state including the law system in order to preserve independence. Civil law, which belongs to one of the three main branches of law, was to be one of the foundations of the future Japanese economy and social harmony. By adopting the French Code Civil as an example, early attempts to codify failed and led to a dispute over the shape of the final Civil Code.