The statutory portion system is an alternative institution to the legitime in protecting the financial interests of the immediate family of the bequeather which is not a part of the current Polish legislation. The statutory portion is, however, not entirely unknown to domestic civil law. The inheritance law of the central districts, which currently constitute the territory of Poland, provided for an institution of compulsory share during the period of partitions and the Second Polish Republic. The author describes the history of the statutory portion on Polish lands and comprehensively analyses the method of its regulation in former legislation. He also outlines what the attitudes of the most prominent researchers towards the institution in question were during the period of unification and codification of civil law between 1919 and 1939. This dissertation refers mostly to the history of law but it also shows that the statutory portion constituted a vital element of the Polish legal culture. It is thus worth remembering in the course of any possible deliberations regarding the implementation of changes to the inheritance law. In this context, the analysis of the compulsory share becomes practical and momentous in nature also at the present time.