Recent incidents which took place in the Republic of Turkey have highlighted the problem of human and civil rights and freedoms not being respected by public authority. Despite the introduction of a great deal of rights and freedoms to the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, many Turkish constitutional articles are violated every year. This tendency is confirmed by the judgements of the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. The following article aims at presenting three legal measures of human protection: the right to a fair trial, the institution of constitutional complaint and the right to petition the Ombudsman. The analysis concerns the characteristic of these three judicial and extrajudicial measures of rights and freedoms. Similarities and differences between the legal systems of Turkey and Poland are also presented.