Assuming that ritual and myth are an evolutionary heritage of the human species, it is also usually assumed that in that case they are adaptations, in other words that their emergence has increased the evolutionary fitness of human beings. However, it is also possible that both ritual and myth are by-products of proper adaptations. As a consequence, there is the possibility that some elements of the process of formation of ritual and myth are adaptations, while others are by-products (a mixed process). This article is in favour of the latter option, i.e. it assumes that the process of shaping ritual and myth, as well as the synthesis of both phenomena, is complex and heterogeneous from the point of view of dividing evolutionary effects into adaptations and by-products of adaptation.