Concept of human dignity, as the foundation and starting point of human rights, is a vague term. On the one hand it provides – necessary in this situation – power to determine, but also renders the meaning of those rights dependent on an adopted conception. This problem is not only theoretical, but it affects particular decisions in real cases. It shows already in the case of unquestionably fundamental human right, as a right to life and its protection and boundaries between this protection and freedom of will. This article will present a comparison between three main ideas of human dignity, which can lead to distinct conclusions on that score: personalistic conception presented by the Catholic Church, liberal conception of Immanuel Kant and postmodern vision of human dignity.