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Catholic theology has, for centuries been dominated by the paradigm of exclusion, that is the belief that only membership in the Catholic Church guarantees salvation. At the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965), the Catholic Church spoke on democracy and cultural and theological pluralism. Decisive are two concepts used by the pope who called the Council. John XXIII spoke of the need for aggiornamento, the need to adapt the doctrine and practice of the Church to the changing conditions in which Catholics live, and the ability to read the signs of the times, the challenges facing the Church. One of the most important determinants of this new attitude was the change to other religions. Paradigmatic for this new attitude turned out to be two conciliar statements. One about religious freedom – Dignitatis Humanae, which centered on human dignity and freedom of conscience, and the other on the relationship of Catholicism to other religions – Nostra aetate, in which for the first time in history the Church has responded positively to other ways to God. Both documents were, not without reason, called the Copernican Revolution of Catholic theology. The aim of this article is to present this change and its implications for Catholicism itself.