The main goal of this article is to present the issue of legal capacity and legal capacity of natural persons and juridical persons in Japanese civil law. Although the Japanese Civil Code (jap. Mimpō) was adopted more than 100 years ago and significant amendment were passed in the last two decades, this subject has not been widely examined by Polish and foreign researchers. Japanese civil law, derived largely from the nineteenth-century Prussian BGB, enriched with basic French rules, underwent profound reforms after World War II, such as the implementation of Anglo-Saxon political principles and the redefinition of the legal capacity of people with the intellectual disability as well as legal persons and foundations. Although the current standards in Mimpō concerning legal capacity and the capacity to perform actions meet all the requirements of a democratic state of law and in many fields it is similar to the Polish Civil Code, some features constitute the uniqueness of Japanese legislation in this area.