The aim of the article is to show the cultural and religious conditions of shaping the national identities of Pomeranian families in the 19th and the beginning of the twentieth century and the often complex choices of their members’ identity. The article was written in the field of historical and educational research. Critical analysis of sources was the main method used by author. As a result of the conducted research, it was possible to show the dynamics of changes in the understanding of national identities by people of various social strata and ethnic groups in Vistula Pomerania in the 19th and early 20th century. In the 19th and early 20thcenturies the Vistula Pomerania was inhabited by German, Polish and Kashubian populations. In connection with the borderland character of this region, the local community often faced serious dilemmas regarding the determination of its own identity (including national identification). Until the nineteenth century, social identification was very often shaped through the prism of religious differences. These differences still had a significant impact on the functioning of local families in Pomerania in the first half of the nineteenth century. The religious differences were used to achieve national goals in the second half of nineteenth century by political and opinion-forming circles. The national consciousness of Pomeranian families was shaped in the context of actions taken by Prussian authorities and the Polish national movement.