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Alternative title:

The legal and social position of she-male in India

Subject and Keywords:

India   human rights   discrimination   shemale   transgenderism   hirjas


According to the definition in the English Oxford Living Dictionary, the term ‚shemale’ means a passive male homosexual or hermaphrodite. In India, transgender people are legally recognized third sex. At the same time, on the one hand their social position is very high – they are respected, they take part in the most important rituals in India, and the rest of India are often afraid of them, because their unusual behavior can bring disgrace to the family. On the other hand, it is a socially excluded group, often deprived of the right to health care or the right to education. This article is designed to bring the Polish reader closer to the legal regulations regarding transgender people in India and their social position. In addition, the actual observance of the rights of these persons will also be examined and the most up-to-date reports of independent organizations protecting human rights in this area will be discussed

Place of publishing:



Wydział Prawa, Administracji i Ekonomii Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego

Date issued:


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ISSN 2080-332X   ISBN 978-83-65158-12-3


pol   eng

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The use of this material is allowed only with accordance of applicable rules of fair use or other exceptions provided by law, and any broader use requires the permission of the authorized entity


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Copyright by Pracownia Badań Praw Orientalnych, Katedra Doktryn Politycznych i Prawnych Wydziału Prawa, Administracji i Ekonomii Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego & Authors

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WR U/PAdjm