Subject and Keywords:
The aim of the study is to review the substance and nature of national minorities and how their protection within the framework of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). The study used publicly available literature in book form, and legal acts regulating the situation of national minorities in the OSCE participating States. Presented in general terms, the evolution of the protection of national minorities. It explains the concept of national minorities in the doctrine, international law and Polish law and presents its classification. Characterized individual rights of national minorities, including the right to participate in political life, the rights of cultural, religious, linguistic, educational. Also defines the obligations of States towards national minorities.