Subject and Keywords:
time ; future ; present ; past ; causal theory of time ; simultaneity ; arrow of time ; block universe ; relativism ; absolutism ; substantial/relational interpretation of time ; phenomenological time ; temporality
In the present book I address the issue of temporality of the real world. The main premise of my reflection is a conviction to the fundamental nature of the category of time in ontology, thus on its objective and universal character. I am critical towards the unrealistic (subjectivist, anthropomorphic) understanding of time such as that of - mutatis mutandis - Immanuel Kant (and many of his followers), John M. E. McTaggart or modern advocates of the so-called block universe. I also attempt to draw a realistic interpretation of temporality, based on the premises of generally understood materialistic ontology and respecting the methodological premise of Ockham’s razor. In my book, I address both the physical and 'consciousness' origins of the notion of time, and try to assess the importance of various factors ('subjective'-phenomenological and 'objective'-physical) in the shaping of the commonsensical and scientific understanding of time. As to the main premises of the philosophy of time which I advocate, I present the ontological status of time in a decidedly anti-substantial way (time is not a 'entity' different from material objects), waning towards the relational interpretation. Secondly, this book is an attempt at defending the ontological position claiming the irreversible nature of change in the universe (presuming the existence of the arrow of time). This assumption is summarized in the book's motto: ignis mutat res. Thirdly and finally, I argue to the objectivity of tenses: the division of time into past, present and future has its objective premises and should not be interpreted in purely intentional categories and treated solely as an 'anthropomorphic deformation' of an adequate vision of transcendental world. The basic reasons for advocating those thesis is the specificity of causal relationship as a basic form of influence in the material world (causal theory of time).