Subject and Keywords:
The article focuses on the problem of standards of scientific research. Scientific research and discussions that follow should meet certain principles regarding generally accepted standards of critical thinking and the rules of fair argument. Compliance with these requirements is necessary to consider conclusions of the scientific discussion valuable, developmental and pursuing discovery of the truth. Any violation of these standards shall lead to disturbances in discussion and may result in drawing false conclusions. Given the above, the methodology of science distinguishes and classifies the so called dishonest arguments in academic discussion. Due to these arguments or stratagems, it is possible to win the argument, regardless of the truth and real facts of the issue. The article discusses the most popular dishonest arguments in scientific discussions. It also introduces an original division of these arguments and stratagems, inspired by the publication of T. Hołówka, Kultura logiczna w przykładach, [Logical culture in examples], Warsaw 2012. Moreover, the article presents methods of defense against disloyal opponents who apply those stratagems. Finally, the article addresses different types of discussions and contains their brief characteristics.