Object structure

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Safety of mass events and football matches in particular


0000-0002-8479-288X   0000-0002-3759-6333

Subject and Keywords:

security   prevention of extremism   organization of sports events


Tekst ros., streszcz. ang., pol.


In an effort to ensure safety during sporting events, and in particular football matches, the Act on the Safety of Mass Events was passed in Poland on 20 March 2009. The new Act comprehensively approaches the regulations concerning the “safety of football matches”, addressing such issues as identification of fans, stadium bans, regulations concerning the sales of tickets and admittance of underage spectators. The remaining articles of the Act regulate the conditions of collecting and processing information concerning safety of mass events, issuing licences for their organisation as well as organisers’ liability for potential damages caused during the events.The novelty of UEFA Euro 2012 was the intended use of the state-of-the-art specialist equipment for monitoring fans and implementation of biometric safety measures facilitating their identification. It would seem that an introduction of such measures as iris analysis and face recognition with the aim of increasing the safety during such a prestigious event as Euro 2012 is hardly a debatable issue, but — even though Poland had provided appropriate legal environment — the UEFA categorically objected to the introduction of the system, arguing that it would be too uncomfortable for the fans. It should be emphasised here that in most instances biometric systems enable effective verification of identity, which contributes to the safety of mass events.As long as there are mass sporting events — and they are unlikely to disappear in the forseeable future — they will be accompanied by such phenomena as hooliganism and related crime. They are combated by specialising units, resorting to various methods with the notable exception of provocation because there is a thin line between committed support of a football team and pure hooliganism. Pathological behaviour in stadiums should be combated judiciously, with the use of effective legal and technical measures as only such a course of action will result in the increase of safety during football matches — the events being so significant in their social and cultural contexts.

Place of publishing:



Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego

Date issued:


Date copyrighted:



ISSN 2082-4939


PAd P 102216 II


rus   pol   eng


Wrocławsko-Lwowskie Zeszyty Prawnicze, 2018, 9, s. 159-175

Is part of:

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Is version of:

Czasopisma Naukowe w Sieci (CNS)

Rights holder:

Copyright by Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego Sp. z o.o.

Autor opisu:

WR U/PAdjm   WR U/PAdbg