The author describes the symptoms of anti-democracy in the political thought and activity of radical nationalist parties in Europe at the beginning of the 21st century. Democracy, as apluralist and tolerant system, enables the activity of political parties and social movements that break the principles of democracy. This is the paradox of democracy. Democracy is pluralism and tolerance. One of the main features of democracy is positive freedom. Radical nationalist parties also want to achieve freedom. However, it is negative freedom — it is freedom from external factors: other states, foreign power, corporations and transnational banks, as well as freedom from the influence of other nations. These elements are also characteristic of other anti-globalisation movements. In radical nationalism, however, these traits mean being locked up in your own country and excluding other people from other national groups. This is demonstrated by the totalitarian way of thinking of radical nationalists, opposition to European integration, as well as undermining national borders in contemporary Europe. The aim of the article is to show the symptoms of anti-democracy in the political thought and the activity of radical nationalist parties in Europe. The author analysed the program documents or the manifestations of activity of 16 parties and other type of nationalist organisations operating in Europe in the first two decades of the 21st century: The National Democracy and Republican Social Movement from Spain, National Rebirth of Poland and National Radical Camp from Poland, The Serbian Radical Party from Serbia, The Motherland Party from Russia, The People’s Party — Our Slovakia from Slovakia, The Right Sector and All-Ukrainian Union “Svoboda” from Ukraine, The Nationalist Union from Lithuania, The National Democratic Party of Germany, The Jobbik Movement for aBetter Hungary, The British National Party, The New Force from Italy, The National Front from France, and Golden Dawn from Greece. The criteria for the analysis were attitudes to liberal democracy, the concept of freedom and national sovereignty, including criticism of European integration, totalitarian and gnostic type of thinking, language of communication, illegal activities and conflicts with law, territorial claims and the threat of a new war in Europe.
Jul 13, 2020
Jul 13, 2020
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