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Trajektoria trwania opancerzonych demokracji

Alternative title:

Militant Democracies’ Trajectory of Continuance


Bäcker, Roman ; Rak, Joanna


0000-0002-3796-3711 ; 0000-0002-0505-3684

Subject and Keywords:

militant democracy ; political system ; political change ; offensive potential ; defensive potential ; ideal type


Stanowi kontynuację: Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis. Studia nad Faszyzmem i Zbrodniami Hitlerowskimi ; 1 (1974)-33 (2011) ; ISSN 0137-1126


The theoretical category of militant democracy in Karl Loevenstein’s meaning is described well in world scholarly literature. Notwithstanding, there is no comprehensive typology of militant democracy which would allow for identifying and diversifying various political regimes which meet the distinctive features of the Weberian ideal type of militant democracy. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to formulate a typology of militant democracies which would be a useful analytical tool for studying diverse political regimes. Importantly, this paper contributes to the field by proposing the framework of the theory, i.e., militant democracies’ trajectory of continuance which consists of the types of militant democracies and the relationships between them. It is significant to assume that the subjects of militant democracy use offensive and defensive strategies which are characterised by the following degrees of intensity: low, moderate, and high. Hence, nine types of these strategies’ configurations are determined. They generate nine types of militant democracies. Moreover, there are nine factorial relationships between them, which are useful for assessing whether and how empirical exemplifications of political regimes change. This proposal of the typology of militant democracies is highly applicable to empirical studies and worth developing in a theoretical way on the basis of new criteria such as the potential of regime regeneration.

Place of publishing:



Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego


Maciejewski, Marek. Red. ; Scheffler, Tomasz. Red. ; Antonów, Radosław. Red.

Date issued:



ISSN 0239-6661 ; ISSN 2300-7249




PAd P 101182 II


eng ; pol


Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis, ISSN 0239-6661 ; no 3933, Studia nad Autorytaryzmem i Totalitaryzmem, t. 41, nr 3, s. 63-82

Is version of:

Czasopisma Naukowe w Sieci (CNS)

Rights holder:

© Copyright by Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego Sp. z o.o., Wrocław 2019