Subject and Keywords:
The author shows that the relationship between rhetoric and ritual is quite obvious. Traditionally, it is associated with such social domains as: politics, law, religion, public performances and celebrations as well as formalized, everyday behaviours. The author invokes the theory of Roman Ingarden, pointing out that the emphasis on the phenomenological analysis of the artefact itself pushes aside the issue of meanings as founded on the formal layers of a literary work (a layer of linguistic-sound creations, a layer of deliberate appearance and a layer of objects). The formal part of a literary work is largely based on the principles of rhetoric. In conclusion, the author puts forward the hypothesis that a specific ritual and rhetoric constitute an additional layer of not just meanings, but rather ritual rhetorical tropes. They imply some meanings, but this is only suggestive. They are not elements of the layer of meanings, but they form a separate layer that has been overlooked in literary studies so far. In the philological tradition the terms used were: parallel places, or similia, and it was a domain not of „reading fun” but of scientific research. Meanwhile, it belongs to the structure of a literary work of art and is intentionally introduced by the writer.