The mass movement of national and ethnic groups is not a new phenomenon. Already I and II Republic was characterized by the coexistence of various ethnic and national groups within the state. With the development of the democratic rule of law and the increasing importance of implementation and protection of human rights, there was a need to regulate the legal status of citizens of different countries, either temporarily or permanently residing in a third country. Hence, initially in the system of universal coverage, then the protection of regional and finally in the Polish legal system, there is a solution whose main objective was to protect the rights of minorities. Protection of individual ethnic and national minorities is extremely important from the point of view of cultural development of countries to ensure the safety of its citizens and strengthening peaceful relations between states. It is therefore necessary to provide effective protection to members of minorities and guarantee the realization of their rights.