The paper aims at examining the problems of health hazards for the children in the family environment, which are of colossal importance from pedagogical and social perspectives.It mainly concerns the period of the Second Republic in the economic and political conditions unfavourable to support proper development in the care of the youngest. In many cases the financial situation determined health awareness. Poor housing, unsuitable food or a shortage of proper clothing, often unsuited for the season, created many health hazards. It should be noted, though, that those disquieting occurrences originated not only from cultural but also economic changes in the families, particularly the poor ones. The level of parental education determined both knowledge and awareness concerning health hazards. Similarly, family traditionalism was largely responsible for developing several health habits and the health culture. Such behaviours were often passed on from generation to generation. Undoubtedly, it reflected the general living standards of the families. Peoples’ lives went down to mere vegetation due to the absence of elementary knowledge, social awareness, personal hygiene and culture. Neglecting children’s health was a serious impediment to their development. It influenced their further progress.Truth to tell, the state was also responsible for child care, yet the measures undertaken to improve preventive hygiene, in particular in the case of social diseases, were insufficient. All these factors had undoubtedly influenced the poor quality of life of many families, in particular the young generation of Poles.