India is a caste country with a diverse social structure and huge inequalities between individual members of society. Although the practice of dividing society into certain castes due to the origin of an individual is contrary to the contemporary understanding of equality before the law and the prohibition of discrimination, it is difficult to imagine Indian society without dividing them into these basic social groups. Belonging to a given caste is an expression of not only financial status, but also beliefs, origins, political and social beliefs. The National Commission for Separated Castes is a constitutional body of India, whose main task is to uphold equality in access to public goods of all residents of India and to protect the rights of members of separate castes. The article is devoted to the special constitutional position of the Commission and the tasks that stand before it.